mortgage loan , aussi Referred to simply have a mortgage , is used Either by purchasers of real property to raise funds to buy real estate; Or putting a link on the property being mortgaged. The loan is ” secured ” on the borrower’s property through a process known as mortgage origination . This means clustering That a legal mechanism is put in place qui Allows the lender to take possession and sell the secured property ( ” foreclosure ” or ” repossession ” ) To pay off the loan in the event that the borrower defaults on the loan or otherwise fails to abide by his terms. The word mortgage is derived from a ” Law French ” term used by English lawyers in the Middle Ages meaning “death pledge”, and refers to the pledge ending (dying) when either obligation is fulfilled or the property is taken through foreclosure. [1] Mortgage can also be described as “a borrower giving consideration in the form of a collateral for a benefit.” Term used by English lawyers in the Middle Ages meaning “death pledge”, and refers to the pledge ending (dying) when either obligation is fulfilled or the property is taken through foreclosure. [1] Mortgage can also be described as “a borrower giving consideration in the form of a collateral for a benefit.” Term used by English lawyers in the Middle Ages meaning “death pledge”, and refers to the pledge ending (dying) when either obligation is fulfilled or the property is taken through foreclosure. [1] Mortgage can also be described as “a borrower giving consideration in the form of a collateral for a benefit.”

Mortgage borrowers can be mortgaging mortgaging commercial property (for example, their own business premises, residential property to tenants or an investment portfolio ). The lender will typically be a financial institution, such as a bank , credit union or building society , depending on the country concerned, and the loan arrangements may be made either directly or indirectly through intermediaries. Features of mortgage loans, loan maturity, loan maturity, interest rate, method of paying off loan, and other characteristics can vary considerably. The lender’s rights over the secured property take priority over the borrower ‘

In many jurisdictions, it is normal for home purchases to be funded by a mortgage loan. Few individuals have enough money or money to enable them to purchase property outright. In countries where the demand for home ownership is highest, strong domestic markets for mortgages have developed.

Mortgage loan basics

Basic concepts and legal regulation

Selon Anglo-American property law , a mortgage OCCURS When an owner (usually of a fee simple interest in realty ) Pledges his or her interest (right to the property) as security or collateral for a loan. Therefore, a mortgage is an encumbrance (limit) on the right to the property just as an easement Would Be, goal Because MOST mortgages Occur as a requirement for new loan money, the word mortgage HAS Become the generic term for a loansecured by Such Real property . As with other types of loans, Mortgages have an interest rate and are scheduled to amortize over a period of time, typically 30 years. All types of real property can be, and usually are, secured with a mortgage and bear an interest rate that is supposed to reflect the lender’s risk.

Mortgage lending is the primary mechanism used in many countries to finance private ownership of residential and commercial property (see commercial mortgages ). Although the terminology and precise forms will differ from country to country, the basic components tend to be similar:

  • Property: the physical residence being financed. The exact form of ownership will vary from country to country, and may restrict the types of lending that are possible.
  • Mortgage : the security interest of the lender in the property, which may include restrictions on the use or disposal of the property. Restrictions may include requirements to purchase home insurance and mortgage insurance , or pay off outstanding debt before selling the property.
  • Borrower : the person borrowing in the property.
  • Lender : any lender, but usually a bank or other financial institution . (In some countries, particularly the United States, Lenders may also be investors who have an interest in the mortgage-backed security . loan to investors. The payments from the borrower are thereafter file Managed by a loan servicer . [2] )
  • Principal: the original size of the loan, which may or may not include certain other costs; As any principal is repaid, the principal will go down in size.
  • Interest : A financial burden for the lender’s money.
  • Foreclosure or repossession : the possibility that the lender has to foreclose, repossess or seize the property under certain circumstances is essential to a mortgage loan; Without this aspect, the loan is arguably no different from any other type of loan.
  • Completion : legal completion of the mortgage deed, and hence the start of the mortgage.
  • Redemption : the final repayment of the outstanding amount, which may be a “natural redemption” at the end of the scheduled term or a lump sum redemption, typically when the borrower decides to sell the property. A closed mortgage account is said to be “redeemed”.

Many other features are available. Governments usually regulate many aspects of mortgage lending, either directly (through legal requirements, for example) or indirectly (through regulation of the participants or the financial markets, , By state-owned banks, or sponsorship of various entities). Other aspects that define a specific mortgage market may be regional, historical, or driven by specific characteristics of the legal or financial system.

Mortgage loans are generally structured as long-term loans, the periodic payments for which they are equivalent to an annuity and according to the time value of money formulae. The most basic arrangement would require a fixed monthly payment over a period of ten to thirty years, depending on local conditions. Over this period the principal component of the loan would be slowly paid down through amortization . In practice, many variants are possible and common worldwide and within each country.

Lenders Provide funds contre property to earn interest income , and Generally thesis borrow funds Themselves (for example, by Taking deposits gold Issuing bonds ). The cost of borrowing. Lenders may also, in many countries, sell the mortgage loan to other parties who are interested in receiving the stream of cash payments from the borrower, often in the form of a securitization .

Mortgage lending will also take into account the (perceived) riskiness of the mortgage loan, that is, the likelihood that the funds will be repaid (usually considered a function of the creditworthiness of the borrower); That they are not repaid, the lender will be able to foreclose on the real estate assets; And the financial, interest rate and time delays that may be involved in certain circumstances.

Mortgage underwriting

Once the mortgage application enters into the final steps, the loan application is moved to a mortgage underwriter. The Underwriter verifies the financial information of the lender. Verification will be made for the applicant’s credit history and the value of the home being purchased. [3] An appraisal may be ordered. The financial and employment information of the applicant will also be verified. The underwriting may take a few days to a few weeks. Sometimes the underwriting process takes so long that they have current. [4] It is advisable to maintain the same employment and not to use or open new credit during the underwriting process. Any changes made in the applicant’s credit, employment,

Mortgage loan types

There are many types of mortgages used worldwide, but several factors broadly define the characteristics of the mortgage. All of these may be subject to local regulation and legal requirements.

  • Interest: Interest may be fixed for the life of the loan or variable, and change at certain pre-defined periods; The interest rate can also, of course, be higher or lower.
  • Term: Mortgage Loans, Mortgage Loans, Mortgage Loans, Mortgage Loans, Mortgage Loans Some mortgage loans may have no amortization, or require full repayment of any remaining balance at a certain date, or even negative amortization .
  • Payment terms and payment: The amount paid per period and the frequency of payments; In some cases, the amount paid per period may change or the borrower may have the option to increase or decrease the amount paid.
  • Prepayment: Some types of mortgages may be restricted or prepaid.

The two basic kinds of amortized loans are the fixed rate mortgage (FRM) and adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM) (Also Known As has floating rate or variable rate mortgage ). In some countries, the mortgages are relatively common. Combinations of fixed and floating rate mortgages are also common, whereby a mortgage loan will have a fixed rate for some period, for example the first five years, and vary after the end of that period.

  • In a fixed rate mortgage, the interest rate, remains fixed for the life (or term) of the loan. In case of an annuity repayment scheme, the periodic payment remains the same amount throughout the loan. In case of linear payback, the periodic payment will gradually decrease.
  • In an adjustable rate mortgage, the interest rate is fixed for a period of time, after which it will periodically (for example, annually or monthly) adjust up or down to some market index. Adjustable rates are the most important factor in determining whether or not to pay for a loan. Since the risk is transferred to the borrower, the initial interest rate may be, for example, 0.5% to 2% lower than the average 30-year fixed rate; The size of the price will vary depending on the yield curve .

The charge to the borrower depends on the credit risk in addition to the interest rate risk. The mortgage origination and underwriting process involves checking credit scores, debt-to-income, downpayments, and assets. Jumbo mortgages and subprime lending are not supported by government guarantees and face higher interest rates. Other innovations described below can affect the rates as well.

Main article: Mortgage underwriting

Loan to value and down payments

Main article: Loan-to-value ratio

Upon making a mortgage loan for the purchase of a property, lenders usually require that the borrower make a down payment; That is, contribute a portion of the cost of the property. This property is not liable for the costs of this property. The loan to value ratio (or LTV) is the size of the loan against the value of the property. Therefore, a mortgage loan in which the purchaser has made a down payment of 80%. For loans made against properties that the borrower already owns, the loan to value will be imputed against the estimated value of the property.

The LTV, the higher the risk that the value of the property (in case of foreclosure) will be insufficient to cover the remaining principal of the loan .

Value: appraised, estimated, and actual

Since the value of the property is an important factor in understanding the risk of the loan, determining the value is a key factor in mortgage lending. The value may be determined in various ways, but the most common are:

  1. Actual or transaction value: this is usually taken to the purchase price of the property. If the property is not available at the time of borrowing, this information may not be available.
  2. Appraised or surveyed value: in most jurisdictions, some form of appraisal of the value by a licensed professional is common. There is often a requirement for the lender to obtain an official appraisal.
  3. Estimated value: lenders or other parties may use their own internal.

Payment and debt ratios

In most countries, a number of more or less standard measures of creditworthiness may be used. Common measures include payment to income (mortgage payments as a percentage of gross or net income); Debt to income(including mortgage payments, as a percentage of income); And various net worth measures. In many countries, credit scores are used in place of or to supplement these measures. There will also be requirements for documentation of the creditworthiness, such as income tax returns, pay stubs, etc. The specifics will vary from location to location.

Some lenders may also require a potential borrower or more months of “reserve assets” available. In other words, the borrower may be required to pay the mortgage, the mortgage or any other part of the mortgage.

Many countries have lower requirements for certain borrowers, or “no-doc” / “low-doc” lending standards that may be acceptable under certain circumstances.

Standard or conforming mortgages

Many countries have a notion of standard or conforming mortgages that define a perceived acceptable level of risk, which may be formal or informal, and may be reinforced by laws, government intervention, or market practice. For example, a standard mortgage may be considered to be one with no more than 70-80% LTV and no more than one-third of gross income going to mortgage debt.

A standard or conforming mortgage is a key concept as it often defines whether or not the mortgage can be easily sold or securitized, or non-standard, may affect the price at which it may be sold. In the United States, a conforming mortgage is one of the most widely used financial instruments in the United States. In contrast, lenders who decide to make nonconforming loans are exercising a higher risk tolerance and so knowing that they face more challenge in reselling the loan. Many countries have similar concepts or agencies that define what are “standard” mortgages. Regulated lenders (such as banks) may be subject to limits or higher risk weightings for non-standard mortgages. For example, Banks and mortgage brokerages in Canada face restrictions on lending more than 80% of the property value; Beyond this level, mortgage insurance is generally required. [5]

Foreign currency mortgage

In a country where foreign currency mortgages are common, enabling lenders to lend themselves to a stable foreign currency, whilst the borrower takes on the currency risk that the currency will depreciate and they will Domestic currency to repay the loan.

Repaying the mortgage

In addition to the two standard moyen de setting the cost of a mortgage loan (at fixed a set interest rate for the term, variable gold relative to market interest rates), there are variations in how That cost is paid, and how the loan Itself Is repaid. Repayment depends on locality, tax laws and prevailing culture. There are also various mortgage repayment structures to follow different types of borrower.

Principal and interest

The most common way to repay a secured mortgage loan is to make regular payments to the principal and interest over a set term. Citation needed ] This is commonly referred to as (self) amortization in the UK and as a repayment . A mortgage is a form of annuity (from the perspective of the lender), and the calculation of the periodic payments is based on the time value of money formulas. Some details may be specific to different locations: interest may be calculated on the basis of a 360-day year, for example; Interest may be compounded daily, yearly, or semi-annually; Prepayment penalties may apply; And other factors.

Depending on the size of the loan and the prevailing practice in the country the term may be short (10 years) or long (50 years more). In the UK and US, 25 to 30 years is the usual maximum term (although shorter periods, such as 15-year mortgage loans, are common). Mortgage payments, which are typically made monthly, contain a repayment of the principal and an interest element. The amount going to the principal in each payment varies throughout the term of the mortgage. In the early years the repayments are mostly interest. Towards the end of the mortgage, payments are mostly for principal. In this way, it is necessary to make the repayment at a specified date in the future. This gives borrowers insurance that by maintaining repayment the loan will be cleared at a specified date, If the interest rate does not change. Some lenders and 3rd parties offer a bi-weekly mortgage payment program designed to accelerate the payoff of the loan.

An amortization schedule is typically worked out at the end of each month, multiplying by the monthly rate and then subtracting the monthly payment. This is typically generated by an amortization calculator using the following formula :

Interest only

Mortgage is an interest-only mortgage , where the principal is not repaid throughout the term. This type of mortgage is common in the UK, especially when associated with a regular investment plan. With this arrangement, the plan is designed to build a mortgage at maturity. This kind of arrangement s’intitule year investment-backed mortgage or is Often related to the kind of plane used: endowment mortgage yew year endowment policy is used, similarly a Personal Equity Plan (PEP) mortgage, Individual Savings Account (ISA) mortgage or pension Mortgage . Historically, Investment-backed mortgages, mortgages, mortgages, mortgages, mortgages. Investment-backed mortgages are seen as higher risk as they are dependent on the investment.

Until recently when? ] It was not uncommon for interest only mortgages to be arranged with a repayment vehicle, with the borrower gambling that the property market will rise sufficiently for the loan to be repaid Surpass the interest rate) citation needed ] .

Interest-only lifetime mortgage

Recent Financial Services Authority guidelines to UK lenders regarding interest-only mortgages has tightened the criteria on new lending on an interest-only basis. The problem for many people has been implemented, or the vehicle itself (eg endowment / ISA policy) has poorly and therefore insufficient funds.

Moving forward, the FSA under the Mortgage Market Review (MMR) have stated there must be strict criteria on the repayment vehicle being used. As such the likes of Nationwide and other lenders have pulled out of the interest-only market.

A resurgence in the equity market has been the introduction of interest-only lifetime mortgages. Where an interest-only mortgage has a fixed term, an interest-only lifetime mortgage will continue for the rest of the mortgagors life. These schemes have proved of interest to people who do like the roll-up effect (compounding) of interest on traditional equity release schemes. They have also proved beneficial to people who had an interest-only mortgage with no repayment. These people can now effectively remortgage on an interest-only lifetime mortgage to maintain continuity.

Interest-only lifetime mortgage schemes are offered by two lenders currently – Stonehaven & more2life. They work by having the options of paying the interest on a monthly basis. By paying off the interest the balance will remain for the rest of their life. This market is set to increase as more retirees require finance in retirement.

Reverse mortgages

For older borrowers (typically in retirement), it may be possible to arrange a mortgage where neither the principal nor interest is repaid. The interest is rolled up with the principal, increasing the debt each year.

These arrangements are variously called Expired reverse mortgages , lifetime mortgages or equity release mortgages (referring to home equity ), DEPENDING on the country. The loans are typically not repaid until the borrowers are deceased, hence the age restriction.

Through the Federal Housing Administration , the US government insures reverse mortgages via a program called the Home Equity Conversion Mortgage (HECM). Unlike standard mortgages (where the loan is paid for), the HECM program allows the homeowner to receive funds in a variety of ways: lump sum payment; As a monthly tenure payment which continues until the borrower dies or moves out of the house permanently; As a monthly payment; Or as a credit line. [6]

For further details, see equity release .

Interest and partial principal

In the United States a partial amortization or balloon loan is one where the amount of money paid is amortized over a certain term. In the UK, a partial repayment mortgage is quite common, especially where the original mortgage was investment-backed.


Graduated payment mortgage loan over the course of time. Balloon payment mortgages have only partial amortization, meaning that amount of monthly payments are due (amortized) over a certain term, but the principal balance is owed at some point of the term a balloon payment Is due. When buying a mortgage , the buyer can consider the mortgage . [7] A wraparound mortgage is a form of selling financing that can make it easier for a seller to sell a property.

Budget loans include taxes and insurance in the mortgage payment; [8] package loans add the costs of furnishings and other personal property to the mortgage. Buydown mortgages allow the lender or seller to pay something similar to point to Reduce interest rate and encourages buyers. [9] Homeowners can also take out loans in which they receive cash for a mortgage debt on their house. Shared appreciation mortgages are a form of equity release . In the US, foreign nationals owe their unique situation to Foreign National mortgage conditions.

Flexible mortgages allow for more freedom by the borrower to skip payments or prepay. Offset mortgages allow deposits to be counted against the mortgage loan. In the UK there is also the endowment mortgage where the borrowers pay interest while the principal is paid with a life insurance policy.

Commercial mortgages typically have different interest rates, risks, and contracts than personal loans. Participation mortgages allow multiple investors to share in a loan. Builders may take out blanket loans which cover several properties at once. Bridge loans may be used as temporary financing pending a longer-term loan. Hard money loans provide financing in exchange for the mortgaging of real estate collateral.

Foreclosure and non-recourse lending

Main article: Foreclosure

In most jurisdictions, a lender may foreclose the mortgaged property if certain conditions occur – principally, non-payment of the mortgage loan. Subject to local legal requirements, the property may then be sold. Anything from the sale to the original debt. In some jurisdictions, mortgage loans are non-recourse loans: if the funds are not repaid to the borrower after foreclosure. In other jurisdictions, the borrower is responsible for any other debt.

In virtually all jurisdictions, specific procedures for foreclosure and sale of the mortgaged property apply, and may be tightly regulated by the. There are also strictly forbidden foreclosures. In some jurisdictions, foreclosure may take many months or even years. In many countries, the ability of lenders to foreclose is extremely limited, and mortgage market development has been notably slower.

National differences

A Study Issued by the UN Economic Commission for Europe Compared German, US and Danish mortgage systems. The German Bausparkassen has a nominal interest rate of approximately 6 per cent per annum in the last 40 years (as of 2004). In addition, they charge administration and service fees (about 1.5 per cent of the loan amount). However, in the United States, the average interest rates for fixed-rate mortgages in the housing market in the tens and twenties in the 1980s and as of 2004 are about 6 per cent per annum. However, gross borrowing costs are much higher than the nominal interest rate for the last 30 years to 10.46 per cent. In Denmark, similar to the United States mortgage market, interest rates have fallen to 6 per cent per annum. A risk and administration fee amounts to 0.5 per cent of the outstanding debt. In addition, an. [10]

United States

Main articles: Mortgage industry in the United States and Mortgage in the United States

The mortgage industry of the United States is a major financial sector. The federal government has several programs, or government sponsored entities , to foster mortgage lending, construction and encourage home ownership . These programs include the Government National Mortgage Association (known as Ginnie Mae), the Federal National Mortgage Association and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (known as Freddie Mac).

The US mortgage sector has been the center of major financial crises over the last century. Unsound lending practices resulted in the National Mortgage Crisis of the 1930s , the savings and loan crisis of the 1980s and 1990s and the subprime mortgage crisis of 2007 which led to the 2010 foreclosure crisis . [11]

In the United States, the mortgage loan involves two separate documents: the mortgage note (a promissory note ) and the security interest evidenced by the “mortgage” document; The two of them are assigned together, but they are split traditionally the holder of the note and not the mortgage has the right to foreclose. [12] For example, Fannie Mae promulgates a standard form contract Multistate Fixed-Rate Notes 3200 [13] and aussi separate security instrument mortgage qui forms vary by state. [14]


In Canada, the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) is a national housing agency providing mortgage loan insurance, mortgage-backed securities, and housing research to Canadians. [15] It was created by the federal government in 1946 to address the country’s post-war housing shortage, and to help Canadians achieve their homeownership goals.

The most common mortgage in Canada is the five-year fixed-rate mortgage, as opposed to the US. [16] Throughout the financial crisis and the ensuing recession, Canada’s mortgage market continued to function well, partly due to the residential mortgage market’s policy framework, which includes an effective regulatory and supervisory regime. Since the crisis however, the low interest rate environment has a great deal of money in the country. [17]

In April 2014, the Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions (OSFI) released guidelines for mortgage insurance providers and tightening standards around underwriting and risk management. In a statement, the OSFI has stated that it will provide clarity on best practices in respect of residential mortgage insurance underwriting, which contribute to a stable financial system. Finance Minister Jim Flaherty musing about privatizing the Crown corporation. [18]

In an attempt to cool down the real estate prices in Canada, Ottawa introduced a mortgage stress test effective October 17, 2016. Under the stress test every home buyer with less than 20% down payment Judged based on a mortgage rate of 4.64% with 25 years amortization if they want to get a mortgage from any federally regulated lender.This stress test has lowered the maximum approved mortgage by 20% for all borrowers in Canada. Maximum amortization on home mortgages has been reduced back to 30 years instead of 35.

United Kingdom

Main article: Mortgage industry of the United Kingdom

The mortgage industry of the United Kingdom has traditionally been dominated by building societies , but from the 1970s the share of the new mortgage has been declining. Between 1977 and 1987, the share fell from 96% to 66% while in banks and other institutions rose from 3% to 36%. There are currently 200 major financial institutions in Britain. The major lenders include building societies, banks, specialized mortgage corporations, insurance companies, and pension funds.

In the UK variable-rate mortgages are more common in the United States. [19] [20] This is in hand Because mortgage loan financing subsequently assembled less we fixed income securitized assets (Such As mortgage-backed securities ) than in the United States, Denmark, and Germany, and more on retail savings deposits like Australia and Spain . [19] [20] Thus, lenders prefer variable-rate mortgages to fixed rate ones. Nevertheless, in the past few years, it has been possible to determine the number of deaths and deaths. [21] From 2007 to the beginning of 2013 between 50% and 83% of new mortgages had initial periods fixed in this way. [22]

Home ownership rates are comparable to the United States, but overall rates are lower. [19] Prepayment penalties during a fixed period are common, whilst the United States has discouraged their use. [19] Like other European countries and the rest of the world, but unlike most of the United States, mortgages loans are usually not nonrecourse debt , meaning debtors are liable for any loan deficiencies after foreclosure. [19] [23]

The customer-facing aspects of the residential mortgage sector are regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA), and Lenders’ financial probity is overseen by a separate regulator, the Prudential Regulation Authority(PRA) qui est share of the Bank of England . The FCA and PRA were established in 2013 with the aim of responding to the crisis of 2007-2008 and its aftermath. [24] [25] [26]

Continental Europe

In most of Western Europe (except Denmark , the Netherlands and Germany ), variable-rate mortgages are more common, unlike the fixed-rate mortgage common in the United States. [19] [20] Much of Europe has home ownership rates comparable to the United States, but overall is lower in Europe than in the United States. [19] Mortgage loan financing is subsequently assembled less securitizing mortgages and more on formal government Guarantees backed by covered bonds (Such As the Pfandbriefe ) and deposits , except Denmark and Germany Where asset-backed securities sont également common. [19] [20] Prepayment penalties are still common, whilst the United States has discouraged their use. [19] Unlike much of the United States, mortgage loans are usually not nonrecourse debt . [19]

Within the European Union , covered bonds outstanding amounted to EUR 2 trillion at year-end 2007 with Germany, Denmark, Spain, and France each having outstandings above 200,000 EUR million. [27] Pfandbrief-like securities have been introduced in more than 25 European countries-and in recent years also in the US and other countries outside Europe-each with their own unique law and regulations. [10]

Recent trends

Mortgage Rates Historical Trends 1986 to 2010

On July 28, 2008, US Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson announced that, along with a wide range of US banks, the Treasury would attempt to kick start a market for these securities in the United States, an alternative form of mortgage-backed securities. [28] Similarly, in the UK “the Government is inviting views on options for a UK framework to deliver more affordable long-term fixed-rate mortgages, including the lessons to be learned from international markets and institutions.” [29]

George Soros ‘ s October 10, 2008 Wall Street Journal editorial promoted the Danish mortgage market model. [30]


Mortgages in Malaysia can be categorized into 2 different groups: conventional home loan and Islamic home loan. Under the conventional home loan, the interest rate, or both. [31] These interest rates are tied to Base Rate (individual bank’s benchmark rate).

For Islamic home financing, it follows the Sharia Law and comes in 2 common types: Bai ‘Bithaman Ajil (BBA) or Musharakah Mutanaqisah (MM). Bai ‘Bithaman Ajil is at the buys of the property at a very high price. Musharakah Mutanaqisah is when the bank buys the property together with you. You will then slowly buy the bank’s portion of the property through rent (whereby a portion of the rental goes to paying for the purchase of a share in the property in the property until the property comes to your complete ownership).

Islamic countries

Main article: Islamic economics

Islamic Sharia law prohibits the payment or receipt of interest , meaning that Muslims can not use conventional mortgages. HOWEVER, real estate is far too expensive for people to buy MOST outright using cash: Islamic mortgages solve this problem by HAVING the property changes hands twice. In one variation, the bank will buy the house outright and then act as a landlord. The homebuyer, in addition to paying rent , will pay a contribution towards the purchase of the property. When the last payment is made, the property changes hands. Clarification needed ]

Typically, this may lead to a higher final price for the buyers. Because This Is In Some countries (Such As the United Kingdom and India ) there is a stamp duty qui is a tax charged by the government have been changes of ownership. Since ownership changes twice in an Islamic mortgage, a. Many other jurisdictions have similar transactions. In the United Kingdom, the dual application of stamp duty in such transactions was removed in the Finance Act 2003 in order to facilitate Islamic mortgages. [32]

An alternative scheme involves the bank reselling the property according to an installment plan , at a price higher than the original price.

Both of these methods compensate the lender as if they were charging interest, but the loans are structured in a way that they are not, and the lender shares the financial risks involved in the transaction with the homebuyer. Citation needed ]


Bali, Indonesia is an exception to the rule of most home purchase being funded by a mortgage. Instead, most properties there are paid with cash due to the lack of available mortgages. [33]

Mortgage insurance

Main article: Mortgage insurance

Mortgage insurance is an insurance policy designed to protect the mortgage (borrower). It is commonly used in loans with a loan-to-value ratio over 80%, and employed in the event of foreclosure and repossession .

This policy is typically paid for by the borrower as a component to the nominal final (note) rate, or in one lump sum up front, or as a component of monthly mortgage payment. In the last case, mortgage insurance can be dropped when the lender informs the borrower, or its subsequent assigns, that the property has appreciated, the loan has been paid down, or any combination of both to relegate the loan-to-value under 80 %.

In the event of repossession, banks, investors, etc. The property is located in the heart of the city, close to all amenities. Therefore, the mortgage insurance acts as a hedge should the restsessing authority recover the fullness and fair market value for any hard asset.

See also

General, or related to more than one nation

  • Commercial mortgage
  • No Income No Asset (NINA)
  • Nonrecourse debt
  • Refinancing

Related to the United Kingdom

  • Buy to let
  • remortgage
  • UK mortgage terminology

Related to the United States

  • Commercial lender (US) – a term for a lender collateralizing non-residential properties.
  • eMortgages
  • FHA loan – Relating to the US Federal Housing Administration
  • Fixed rate mortgage calculations (USA)
  • Rent Efficient Mortgage – a type of mortgage for urban areas
  • Mortgage assumption
  • Pre-approval – US mortgage terminology
  • Pre-qualification – US mortgage terminology
  • Predatory mortgage lending
  • VA loan – Relating to the US Department of Veterans Affairs .

Other nations

  • Danish mortgage market
  • Hypothec – equivalent in civil law countries
  • Mortgage Investment Corporation

Legal details

  • Deed – legal aspects
  • Mechanics link – a legal concept
  • Perfection – applicable legal filing requirements


  1. Jump up^ Coke, Edward . Commentaries on the Laws of England . [I] he doth not pay, then the land which is put in pledge upon condition for the payment of the money, is taken from him for ever, and so dead to him upon condition, & c. And if he doth pay the money, then the pledge is dead
  2. Jump up^ FTC. Mortgage Servicing: Making Sure Your Payments Count.
  3. Jump up^ “How Long Does Mortgage Underwriting Take?” . . SFGate . Retrieved 9 December 2016 .
  4. Jump up^ “The Underwriter: Unseen Approver of Your Mortgage”
  5. Jump up^ “Who Needs Mortgage Loan Insurance?” . Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation . Retrieved 2009-01-30 .
  6. Jump up^ “How do HECM Reverse Mortgages Work?” . Http:// . External link in( help ) |website=
  7. Jump up^ Are Mortgage Assumptions a Good Deal? . Mortgage Professor.
  8. Jump up^ Cortesi GR. (2003). Mastering Real Estate Principals. p. 371
  9. Jump up^ Homes: Slow-market savings – the buy-down. CNN Money.
  10. ^ Jump up to:b , p. 46 Cite error: Invalid <ref>tag; Name “UNECE” defined multiple times with different content (see the help page ).
  11. Jump up^ Michael Simkovic, Competition and Crisis in Mortgage Securitization
  12. Jump up^ Renuart E. (2012). Property Title Trouble in Non-Judicial Foreclosure States: The Ibanez Time Bomb? . Albany Law School
  13. Jump up^ Single-family notes. Fannie Mae.
  14. Jump up^ Security Instruments. Fannie Mae.
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  19. ^ Jump up to:j Congressional Budget Office (2010). Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, and the Federal Role in the Secondary Mortgage Market . p. 49.
  20. ^ Jump up to:d International Monetary Fund (2004). World Economic Outlook: September 2004: The Global Demographic Transition . pp. 81-83. ISBN  978-1-58906-406-5 .
  21. Jump up^ “Best fixed rate mortgages: two, three, five and 10 years” . The Telegraph . 26 February 2014 . Retrieved 10 May 2014 .
  22. Jump up^ “Demand for fixed mortgages hits all-time high” . The Telegraph . 17 May 2013 . Retrieved 10 May 2014 .
  23. Jump up^ United Nations (2009). Forest Products Annual Market Review 2008-2009 . United Nations Publications . p. 42. ISBN  978-92-1-117007-8 .
  24. Jump up^ Vina, Gonzalo. “UK Scraps FSA in Biggest Bank Regulation Overhaul Since 1997” . Businessweek . Bloomberg LP . Retrieved 10 May 2014 .
  25. Jump up^ “Regulatory Reform Background” . FSA web site . FSA . Retrieved 10 May 2014 .
  26. Jump up^ “Financial Services Bill receives Royal Assent” . HM Treasury. 19 December 2012 . Retrieved 10 May 2014 .
  27. Jump up^ Covered Bond Outstanding 2007
  28. Jump up^ FDIC Policy Statement on Covered Bonds
  29. Jump up^ Housing Finance Review: analysis and proposals. HM Treasury, March 2008
  30. Jump up^ “Denmark offers a model mortgage market”
  31. Jump up^ “Types of Home Loans in Malaysia” . .
  32. Jump up^ Reliefs: Alternative property finance
  33. Jump up^ Sonia Kolesnikov-Jessop (January 29, 2009). “Bali’s cash property market keeps prices up” . New York Times . International Herald-Tribune . Retrieved 2009-01-30 . ‘Nils Wetterlind, managing director of Tropical Homes, a real estate developer and brokerage based on the island.