Mortgage origination , has Specialized subset of loan origination , in consumer lending is the process by qui a lender works with a borrower to a full mortgage transaction resulting and in a mortgage loan . A mortgage is a loan in which property or real estate is used as collateral. During this process, borrowers must submit various types of financial information and documentation to a mortgage lender, including tax returns, payment history, credit card information and bank balances. Mortgage lenders use this information to determine the type of loan and the interest rate for which the borrower is eligible. The process in the United States has become complex due to the proliferation of loan products and consumer protection regulations. [1]

Mortgage origination process

The mortgage origination, a subset of loan origination , is a complex and evolved process that involves many steps, which varies from lender to lender. The basic steps include

  • This application is based on the knowledge and understanding of the state of the art of borrowing. The application is filled out by the borrower, either through self-services or with the help of a loan officer.
  • Processing : loan processors, which includes all the documentation, is verified, and compliant for underwriting. The loan processor.
  • Underwriting : The underwriting of a mortgage loan to a particular borrower under certain conditions is acceptable, and includes verification, appraisal, title search and insurance, flood certification, and surveying.
  • Closing / funding : a settlement agent is the manager of a mortgage.
  • Shipping and delivery : documents are reviewed for auditing and quality control purposes, copies are sent to investors, and purchase notifications are sent to other departments.

Key consumer protection regulations

The mortgage origination process in the United States is required to comply with the following regulations:

  • Fair Housing Act : enacted in 1963, makes it “unlawful to refuse to sell, or negotiate with any person because of that person’s inclusion in a protected class “. [2]
  • Equal Credit Opportunity Act (ECOA) : enacted in 1974, which makes it unlawful for any creditor to discriminate against any applicant, with respect to any aspect of a credit transaction, Marital status, or age (provided the applicant has the capacity to contract). [3]
  • Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) : enacted in 1975, [4] to provide information that shows whether financial institutions are serving local housing credit needs, and to help public officials in targeting public investments.
  • Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank) : Enacted in 2010 As a Response to the Financial Crisis of 2007-2008 , it makes the most significant changes to financial regulation in the United States The Great Depression . [5] [6] [7] [8] It is important to note that this is not the case. [9] [10]
  • TILA-RESPA Integrated Disclosure Rule (TRID) : Effective October 2015, TRID was required by the Dodd-Frank Act and requires the use of new, integrated disclosure forms for consumers at the time of application and settlement-known as Loan Estimate ) And the Closing Disclosure (CD). It builds on the Truth in Lending Act (TILA) Enacted in 1968 That requires disclosures about ict terms and cost to standardize the Manner in qui costs associated with borrowing are Calculated and Disclosed, [11] and the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA) Enacted in 1974 that protects homeowners by assisting them in getting better educated while shopping for real estate services, And eliminating kickbacks and referral fees which add unnecessary costs to settlement services. [12]

Mortgage origination tools

Mortgage origination tools fall into three categories:

  • Point Of Sale (POS) : the platform that allows the lender to make the sale with a borrower. It may interfere directly with the borrower, a loan officer, or both. POS systems may include borrower self-help, data validation, and compliance checking to ensure the loan application is ready for processing and underwriting.
  • Loan Origination System (LOS) : the platform that takes a completed loan and facilitates the mortgage transaction from processing to shipping. LOS systems may include document management, esigning, and compliance checking to reduce risk and increase loan quality.
  • Mortgage origination services : Services that are used throughout the mortgage origination process and include appraisal, pricing, flood, fraud, title, and credit checks.

References

  1. Jump up^ Nocera, Joe (January 16, 2012). “Keep It Simple” . New York Times . Retrieved June 19, 2017 .
  2. Jump up^ Definition of Fair Housing Act of 1968 , Legal Dictionary at TheFreeDictionary.com, Farlex Company. Accessed 15 January 2011.
  3. Jump up^ Dlabay, Les R .; Burrow, James L .; Brad, Brad (2009). Intro to Business . Mason, Ohio : South-Western Cengage Learning . p. 470.ISBN  978-0-538-44561-0 . The Equal Credit Opportunity Act prohibits creditors from denying a person credit because of age, race, sex, or marital status.
  4. Jump up^ Home Mortgage Disclosure Act of 1975
  5. Jump up^ Shear, Michael D. (September 17, 2008). “McCain Embraces Regulation After Many Years of Opposition” . Washington Post . Retrieved 7 February 2017 . We are going to enact and enforce reforms to make sure that these outrages never happen in the first place.
  6. Jump up^ Paletta, Damian; Lucchetti, Aaron (July 16, 2010). “Law Remakes US Financial Landscape” . Wall Street Journal . Retrieved July 22, 2010 .
  7. Jump up^ “Obama to Sign Dodd-Frank Financial Regulatory Reform Bill Into Law Today” . The Washington Independent . July 21, 2010 . Retrieved July 22, 2010 .
  8. Jump up^ https://krugman.blogs.nytimes.com/2016/02/03/half-a-loaf-financial-reform-edition/
  9. Jump up^ “Dodd-Frank Act Becomes Law” . The Harvard Law School Forum on Corporate Governance and Financial Regulation. July 21, 2010 . Retrieved July 25, 2010 .
  10. Jump up^ “The Dodd-Frank Act: Significant Impact on Public Companies” (PDF). Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom . Retrieved July 25, 2010 .
  11. Jump up^ Dlabay, Les R .; Burrow, James L .; Brad, Brad (2009). Intro to Business . Mason, Ohio : South-Western Cengage Learning . p. 469.ISBN  978-0-538-44561-0 .
  12. Jump up^ “Regulation X Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act” (PDF) . CFPB Consumer Laws and Regulations . Consumer Financial Protection Bureau. March 2015 . Retrieved 18 May 2016 . This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain .